In this paper, we introduce a novel multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) concept for multimodal operation. The proposed system employs waveforms based on the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique and digital beamforming (DBF) on receive. Thereby, it becomes feasible to maximize spatial degrees of freedom, which are necessary for the multimodal operation.
The proposed MIMO SAR system produces multiple high-resolution wide-swath SAR imageries that are used for coherent postprocessing. Through this paper, we aim to open up a new perspective of using MIMO concept for a wide-swath SAR imaging with high resolution in interferometric and polarimetric modes, based on OFDM and DBF techniques. Therefore, this paper encompasses broad theoretical backgrounds and general system design issues as well as specific signal processing techniques and aspects.