Audio Watermarking Based on Fibonacci Numbers

This paper presents a novel high-capacity audio watermarking system to embed data and extract them in a bit-exact manner by changing some of the magnitudes of the FFT spectrum. The key idea is to divide the FFT spectrum into short frames and change the magnitude of the selected FFT samples using Fibonacci numbers. Taking advantage of Fibonacci numbers, it is possible to change the frequency samples adaptively. In fact, the suggested technique guarantees and proves, mathematically, that the maximum change is less than 61% of the related FFT sample and the average error for each sample is 25%.

Using the closest Fibonacci number to FFT magnitudes results in a robust and transparent technique. On top of very remarkable capacity, transparency and robustness, this scheme provides two parameters which facilitate the regulation of these properties. The experimental results show that the method has a high capacity (700 bps to 3 kbps), without significant perceptual distortion (ODG is about -1) and provides robustness against common audio signalprocessing such as echo, added noise, filtering, and MPEG compression (MP3). In addition to the experimental results, the fidelity of suggested system is proved mathematically.

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